The genome of a placozoan (“flat animal”) shows more complexity than one would expect for a simple life form. According to evolutionists, it shows that even a barely-differentiated animal presumably ancestral to complex animals had the genetic toolkit of its more-advanced descendents. Trichoplax adhaerens is a slimy-looking thing that sticks to aquarium walls. Science Daily has a picture of it. The article says the genome is “confounding [the] array of complex capabilities” because it “appears to harbor a far more complex suite of capabilities than meets the eye.” Although the organism only has 4 or 5 cell types and no organs or gut, its genome “encodes a panoply of signaling genes and transcription factors usually associated with more complex animals.” This includes genes for neurons even though it has no nerves, and hints of genes for sexual reproduction even though it usually divides by fission. It even has a “parts list” for embryo formation but has not been observed to go through an embryo stage. Another surprise is that T. adhaerens contains 80% of the same introns as humans – in much the same arrangement. Introns have been considered genomic “junk” that must be removed during translation. That these parts are “conserved” (unevolved) from a primitive animal to a human being seems to point to a function for introns and their specific arrangements. Fruit flies and other advanced life, though, have far fewer introns. The original paper in Nature1 summarized the surprises:The compact genome shows remarkable complexity, including conserved gene content, gene structure and synteny [i.e., conserved linkage without requiring colinearity] relative to human and other eumetazoan genomes. Despite the absence of any known developmental program and only a modest number of cell types, the Trichoplax genome encodes a rich array of transcription factors and signalling genes that are typically associated with embryogenesis and cell fate specification in eumetazoans, as well as other genes that are consistent with cryptic patterning of cells, unobserved life history stages and/or complex execution of biological processes such as fission and embryonic development in these enigmatic creatures.One of the authors of the paper said, “Trichoplax has had just as much time to evolve as humans, but because of its morphological simplicity, it is tempting to think of it as a surrogate for an early animal.”Update 08/23/2008: Elisabeth Pennisi, reporting for Science,2 added rhetoric to the “surprise effect” coming from this genome. Trichoplax “barely qualifies as an animal.” she said. It is one millimeter long and covered with cilia. It glides along like an amoeba. It usually divides by budding or fission. One biologist was quoted saying, “Yet this animal’s genome looks surprisingly like ours.” Here are some other quotes from her news report:It’s a puzzle why Trichoplax, a seemingly primitive animal, has such a complex genome.Biologists had once assumed that complicated body plans and complex genomes went hand in hand. But T. adhaerens’s genome … “highlights a disconnect between molecular and morphological complexity,” says Mark Martindale, an experimental embryologist at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Adds Casey Dunn, an evolutionary biologist at Brown University, “It is now completely clear that genomic complexity was present very early on” in animal evolution.Despite being developmentally simple–with no organs or many specialized cells–the placozoan has counterparts of the transcription factors that more complex organisms need to make their many body parts and tissues.“Many genes viewed as having particular ‘functions’ in bilaterians or mammals turn out to have much deeper evolutionary history than expected, raising questions about why they evolved,” says Douglas Erwin, an evolutionary biologist at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) in Washington, D.C. 1. Srivastava et al, “The Trichoplax genome and the nature of placozoans,” Nature 454, 955-960 (21 August 2008) | doi:10.1038/nature07191.2. Elizabeth Pennisi, “Genomics: ‘Simple’ Animal’s Genome Proves Unexpectedly Complex,” Science, 22 August 2008: Vol. 321. no. 5892, pp. 1028-1029, DOI: 10.1126/science.321.5892.1028b.The predictions of evolutionists that they would find Darwin’s tree of life in the genomes of organisms has been falsified. Genomes do not show a straightforward progression from simple to complex, with gradual acquisition of new function over time. The evo-talk in the article and paper sounds forced and superfluous. It may be “tempting” to “think of it” as a primitive evolutionary thing, but moral philosophy admonishes us to overcome temptation. The genetic toolkit appears established early on. In addition, gene count, chromosome number, and intron content appear indifferent to evolutionary relationships. Trichoplax shows that simple organisms can have complex genes they don’t use – another contradiction with evolutionary expectations. The relationship between genotype and phenotype appears much more elaborate than any evolutionary biologist expected. Whatever is going on, it is time to think outside Darwin’s black box.(Visited 19 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
11 February 2014South Africa’s unemployment rate eased to 24.1% in the fourth quarter of 2013 from a revised 24.5% in the third quarter, Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) reported on Tuesday.Releasing its Quarterly Labour Force Survey, Stats SA said the number of jobs had increased by 141 000 in the quarter, largely due to an increase of 123 000 jobs in the informal sector and 64 000 jobs in the formal sector.Most of the increase was among people with temporary and short-term contracts, Stats SA said, adding: “Despite the rise in employment numbers, the proportion of working-age South Africans with jobs, at 43.3%, is still below the pre-recession peak of 46.2% observed in quarter four of 2008.”Informal non-agricultural sector jobs increased by 123 000 over the fourth quarter, while formal sector non-agricultural jobs increased by 64 000. Over the course of the quarter, the agricultural sector and private households shed 27 000 and 20 000 jobs.The number of unemployed people decreased by 50 000 over the period, while the labour force grew by 91 000.Nedbank economists, commenting on the latest figures, said South Africa’s unemployment rate was unlikely to be reduced significantly in the short term given weak domestic demand, rising input costs, labour disputes, significant infrastructure constraints and other regulatory issues in some key sectors.The figures suggest that the country’s weak economy is still struggling to reduce the unemployment rate significantly, the bank said in a research note.“The growth outlook is still fragile. At the same time, recent other indicators suggest that inflation is still contained, but the outlook has deteriorated due to the weaker rand. In order to contain the inflationary pressures, we anticipate that the Reserve Bank will raise rates once more in March before keeping them on hold well into 2015.”The Reserve bank raised the repo rate by 50 basis points to 5.5% in January.Stats SA’s Quarterly Labour Force Survey is a household-based sample survey that gathers data on the labour market activities of individuals aged 15 and above who live in South Africa.Source: SAnews.gov.za
The Goa police on Tuesday arrested a motor-cycle taxi owner in connection with a complaint of molestation filed by a U.S. tourist.The woman had said on Facebook that she was molested during a bike ride in Goa on the eve of Republic Day. Inspector C.L. Patil, in charge of the Anjuna police station, told presspersons on Tuesday that Isidore Ferandes, 44, a resident of Anjuna in north coastal Goa, was arrested and handed over to the neighbouring Pernem police station as the crime area comes under its jurisdiction. Chandan Chaudhary, Superintendent of Police, North Goa, told The Hindu that the accused had confessed to the crime.The U.S. tourist had hired the motorcycle taxi for a ride from Arpora to Morjim beach village, both in North coastal Goa.
Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Catriona Gray spends Thanksgiving by preparing meals for people with illnesses For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. Lady Eagles kick off bid vs Lady Bombers Read Next Lyceum’s CJ Perez finished with 15 points and four steals for Heroes. But Perez struggled just like Kent Salado in the final minute as the Saints tightened up on defense.Meanwhile, Arellano forward Lervin Flores ruled the slam dunk contest, leaping over three people, including comedian Empoy Marquez who was among the judges.Flores’ perfect 50 dunk in the final round rescued what was an otherwise drab affair which saw six of the nine participants unable to convert their dunk attempts.It was redemption for Flores, who was left frustrated last year when he failed to get past the first round of the competition.Justin Gutang of St. Benilde settled for second place after getting a score of 45 for his 360 slam.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes PLAY LIST 01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes01:1355,000 early birds flock at Manila North Cemetery04:36Undas 2019: Remembering the dead and reuniting with the living01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games LOOK: Venues for 2019 SEA Games UPLB exempted from SEA Games class suspension Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments Mapua ruled two side events as Almel Orquina topped the three-point contest, besting a strong field that also included 2016 champion Amiel Soberano. Another Cardinal, JP Nieles ruled the skills challenge while Perpetual, led by GJ Ylagan, topped the Shooting Stars competition. SEA Games in Calabarzon safe, secure – Solcom chief While Eze did most of the damage inside the paint, Fernandez also had a San Beda-Letran combination to thank for as Rey Nambatac joined forces with Robert Bolick and Javee Mocon in a strong finish.Bolick nailed a triple from the corner with 1:49 for an 82-80 cushion.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutEze, who also had 14 rebounds, was named MVP of the All Star game, matching the achievement of his former teammate Bright Akhuetie.“At least the players enjoyed and we were able to balance their playing time,” said Fernandez. “Eze played really well. He has really blossomed as a player.” Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netPerpetual Help’s Prince Eze, the Most Valuable Player award front-runner at the end of the first round, sparkled down the stretch as Saints All Stars outlasted Heroes, 84-80, in the fourth annual NCAA All Star Game last Friday night at Filoil Flying V Centre in San Juan.In a surprisingly tough and competitive encounter, the 6-foot-10 Eze, playing heavy minutes, drained two free throws with 10 seconds remaining to seal the victory for the Saints of San Beda coach Boyet Fernandez.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC
If the first two rounds of the 2016 NCAA Tournament weren’t the most exciting in the event’s history, they’re certainly in the running. We saw a 15-seed knock off the national title favorite. We saw numerous buzzer-beaters – including one from half-court. We saw a 12-point comeback in just 44 seconds. And we witnessed historic dominance from one conference – the ACC.Now, we’re onto the Sweet 16 – where the insanity seems to have settled. In fact, Gonzaga – winner of the West Coast Conference – is the only school from a non-power league left. That being said, the Bulldogs are dangerous.Here’s an updated look at the bracket. All four No. 1 seeds remain – though many have tough matchups this week. One week from now, we’ll know which teams will be participating in the Final Four.Here’s the schedule for games on Thursday and Friday. Elite Eight contests will be played Saturday and Sunday.Thursday:(2) Villanova vs. (3) Miami: 7:10 PM ET on CBS(2) Oklahoma vs. (3) Texas A&M: 7:37 PM ET on TBS(1) Kansas vs. (5) Maryland: 9:40 PM ET on CBS(1) Oregon vs. (4) Duke: 10:07 PM ET on TBSFriday:(1) Virginia vs. (4) Iowa State: 7:10 PM ET on CBS(6) Notre Dame vs. (7) Wisconsin: 7:27 PM ET on TBS(10) Syracuse vs. (11) Gonzaga: 9:40 PM ET on CBS(1) North Carolina vs. (5) Indiana: 9:57 PM ET on TBSIt’s been a historic year. Are there more surprises in store?