With the Warriors’ 2019-20 season quickly coming upon us, we thought this would be a good opportunity for our sports journalists to come out and say hello. This season will definitely be different, and who better to discuss the new look and feel of the team than our sports columnist Dieter Kurtenbach and senior photographer Jose Carlos Fajardo.You can find the guys talking everything Warriors at our “Bay Area News Group In Real Life” event happening on Sunday, Sept. 29 at the San Jose Woman’s …
Scientific papers on cell biology continue to uncover amazing things as techniques improve to peer into the workings of these units of life. Here are our Top Ten from the last few weeks:Immunity Tunes: A press release from Johns Hopkins talked about how, unlike other cells, immune cells undergo a “dizzying loop of activity” to generate huge varieties of antibodies through recombination. They liken the regulator of the recombination process to a band leader directing a jam session. (Emphasis added in all instances.)Oxygen Sensor: “Cell’s Power Plants Also Sense Low Oxygen” announced a report from Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In summary, “Researchers have produced the strongest evidence yet that mitochondria – the organelles that generate energy to power the cell – also monitor oxygen concentration in the cell. If oxygen slips below a critical threshold, the mitochondrial ‘sensor’ triggers protective responses to promote survival.” Controlling oxygen levels is important. Both too little and too much can be deadly, not only to the cell, but to the whole organism.Reverse Gear: Nature1 June 9 talked about the myosin monorail trains that ride the microtubule rails. Out of the myosin superfamily of motor proteins, consisting of 18 classes, they were curious how Myosin VI is bidirectional, unlike most of its siblings. They studied its “lever arm,” “power stroke” and “converter” but did not come up with a final model of how it works. “Undoubtedly, this unique myosin family member has yet more surprises to reveal,” they concluded.Transporters: Aussie biologists talked about protein transport into mitochondrial membranes in Current Biology.2 Since there are two membranes, similar to those in chloroplasts (see 01/01/2005 story), there are two squads of transporters to get the cargo in and out. Named TOM and TIM for translocons of the outer and inner membranes, these are “a series of molecular machines” that know how to sort and authenticate objects needing to pass the gates. They envisioned an “entropic spring” mechanism that can help get the cargo passed through “no apparent input of energy.” This type of mechanism is “an emerging theme in biology” that harnesses the disordered motion of molecules to provide binding flexibility and low energy cost to accomplish “a range of functions.” “The TIM23 complex is a smart machine,” they say, describing its ability to grab a piece of cargo, insert it, respond to a stop-transfer signal and reject it, or pass the cargo to the next machine complex.Tissue Triage: Another paper in Current Biology3 discussed how epidermal cells repair damage. The phylogeny of this ability was a puzzle: “Amazingly, while the eyes and hearts of Drosophila and mammals are constructed in entirely different ways and are morphologically quite distinct, their development appears to be under the control of similar master-regulatory transcription factors,” they said. These operations on two vastly different types of organisms cannot be homologous, they suggest; they must be due to convergent evolution. However the repair mechanism arose, it involves signaling and a cascade of coordinated events involving molecular machines. The result? A stitch in time, and wounds that are self-healing. This is another “conserved repair response,” they say, meaning that it is found early in the history of life with little change since.Quality Control: A press release from Yale described a protein that “recognizes misfolded RNAs, creating a RNA quality control system for cells.”Kissing Chromosomes: A news story in Nature4 sheds light on a mystery of gene regulation. We all know chromosomes come in pairs, but how do the genes on each member get expressed together when they are separated by distance? Out of the “many strategies to orchestrate gene activation or repression” in the cell’s bag of tricks, “A three-dimensional examination of gene regulation suggests that portions from different chromosomes ‘communicate’ with each other, and bring related genes together in the nucleus to coordinate their expression.” It’s nice that the spouses are on speaking terms. “Such inter-chromosomal communication has been suspected for some time,” Dimitris Kioussis said, “but this is the first evidence that it actually takes place.” Our understanding of gene regulation has changed from a linear view “to an appreciation that genes are associated with groups of proteins, forming multimolecular complexes,” he said. We’re going to have to see the process not just in snapshots or just a movie: “Is it time to go 4D?” he jests with implicit seriousness. No one knows how the chromosomes are brought together. “How do genes find their appropriate location in the nucleus of a cell, and how are genes that must be expressed herded into active neighbourhoods?” he asks (see “Spaghetti in a Basketball,” 07/28/2004). Whatever the mechanism, “These remarkable findings will puzzle us for some time to come.”Inter-Agency Coordination: Cities have fire departments, police departments, ambulances, highway patrol, disaster response teams and other agencies that sometimes have overlapping duties. Cells do, too. There are multiple repair mechanisms able to respond to different kinds of DNA damage. Scientists writing in Molecular Cell5 discussed what is known about how they coordinate their actions during the emergency repair called TLS (trans-lesion DNA synthesis): “The process requires multiple polymerase switching events during which the high-fidelity DNA polymerase in the replication machinery arrested at the primer terminus is replaced by one or more polymerases that are specialized for TLS. When replicative bypass is fully completed, the primer terminus is once again occupied by high-fidelity polymerases in the replicative machinery.” It sounds like the first-aid squad knows how and when to patch up things enough to get the patient to the surgeon.Texas Tech: Scientists in Texas, publishing in Cell,6 found another multi-talented molecular machine. The rotor part of the V-type ATP synthase (see 02/24/2003 entry) does more than just help acidify vesicles. It also has “an independent function in membrane fusion,” they found. It is essential in the process of exocytosis – what neurons do to transmit their messages. They found that mutant embryos had severe defects in synaptic transmission of nerve signals. (This was found in fruit flies.) By the way, the other form of this rotary motor, the F-type ATP synthase, was called “The World’s Smallest Wind-Up Toy” by Richard Berry in Current Biology.7 Researchers have figured out how to make the motor turn, using magnets. He thinks scientists are on the verge of figuring out how the F0 rotor converts proton flow into torque.Ultimate Spa: Last but not least, scientists at the Salk Institute last month announced a surprising solution to the puzzle of how embryos start their left-right orientation. An “embryonic body wash” operated by cilia sweeps chemical signals across the embryo: “the foundations for the basic left-right body plan are laid by a microscopic ‘pump’ on the outer surface of the embryo’s underside that wafts chemical messengers over to the left side of the body. This sets up a chemical concentration gradient that tells stem cells how and where to develop.” The cilia rotate at a precise 40-degree angle to generate a current over the embryo. The original paper in Cell contains movies of the action. 1Menetrey et al., “The structure of the myosin VI motor reveals the mechanism of directionality reversal,” Nature 435, 779-785 (9 June 2005) | doi: 10.1038/nature03592.2Perry and Lithgow, “Protein Targeting: Entropy, Energetics and Modular Machines,” Current Biology, Vol 15, R423-R425, 7 June 2005.3Stramer and Martin, “Cell Biology: Master Regulators of Sealing and Healing,” Current Biology, Vol 15, R425-R427, 7 June 2005.4Dimitris Kioussis, “Gene regulation: Kissing chromosomes,” Nature 435, 579-580 (2 June 2005) | doi: 10.1038/435579a.5Friedberg et al., “Trading Places: How Do DNA Polymerases Switch during Translesion DNA Synthesis?” Molecular Cell, Volume 18, Issue 5, 27 May 2005, Pages 499-505, doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.03.032.6Heisinger et al., “The v-ATPase V0 Subunit a1 Is Required for a Late Step in Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis in Drosophila,” Cell, Volume 121, Issue 4, 20 May 2005, Pages 607-620, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.03.012.7Richard Berry, “ATP Synthesis: The World’s Smallest Wind-Up Toy,” Current Biology, Vol 15, R385-R387, 24 May 2005.Sometimes we just have to rub it in: these are just a few samples from the flood of literature coming out each week in cell biology, biochemistry and genetics (check out another example from 01/27/2003). A little overkill is needed once in awhile, a quadruple jolt of caffeine to make the Darwinists wake up and smell the coffee. Almost none of these papers even mention evolution, and the ones that do only assume it: e.g., Myosin VI “might have evolved to provide unique kinetic characteristics that are potentially important for a reverse-directed motor.” Do they really expect anyone to believe that any more? The papers are filled, on the other hand, with design language: motors, machines, mechanisms, coordinated action, synergy, regulators, signaling, strategies and much more. This illustrates how useless Darwinism is; with apologies to Dobzhansky, nothing in biology makes sense in the light of evolution. Intelligent design, by contrast – whether explicit or implicit – yields profound insights. Let ID be the golden cord to show us the way out of the dark labyrinth where Charlie misled us long ago into the lair of the Minotaur, naturalism.(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The Kepler spacecraft has found 2,325 exoplanets so far, but there’s still no place like Earth.Live Science chose to frame the news optimistically. Its headline reads, “9 New Habitable Zone Planets! Huge Haul of Worlds Found By Space Telescope.” Exclamation point, even. But it takes more than being in the zone to qualify as an Earth twin. Two other news sites show a sad face at the news:1st Alien Earth Still Elusive Despite Huge Exoplanet Haul (Space.com)More than 1,000 new exoplanets discovered – but still no Earth twin (Andrew Norton in The Conversation)To keep hope alive, optimists say Kepler is not done yet (it may work into 2018). Sooner or later we’ll get lucky, Andrew Norton says:The latest announcement is an impressive piece of work, and the discovery of so many new exoplanets is stunning. It is increasingly clear that planets orbit stars as a rule – not an exception. While astronomers still haven’t found an exact twin of the Earth, the rapid pace of discoveries is surely a sign that it is just a matter of time until they do.Maybe they will. But a million planets would not be encouraging if they are like Venus, Mars, or Mercury. Look at our moon; it is in the habitable zone, and astronauts have shown you can walk there. But we all know what would happen if you took your helmet off. Norton sifts through the new data:From the newly identified sample [of 1,284 new exoplanets], around 550 are smaller than twice the radius of the Earth, which means they could be rocky in composition. Nine of these lie in the optimistic habitable zone around their stars. However, six of the nine lie on the extreme inner edge of the habitable zone and another lies on the extreme outer edge. This leaves just two firmly within the “conservative” habitable zone and only one of these – the exoplanet Kepler 1229b – is similar in size to the Earth at 1.1 Earth radii. However, even that is not in an Earth-like orbit, as its parent star is a cool red dwarf which the planet orbits once every 87 days.Kepler will keep on looking, but it is rather surprising to find virtually none so far that could support life as we know it. Earth represents just 0.04% of the sample at this time. Admittedly it’s a small sample in the big scheme of things. But Norton reminds us that the requirements for an Earth twin are stringent:Such a planet would have not only a radius similar to the Earth but a mass similar to the Earth too (and so presumably a similar bulk composition) and it would orbit a star of similar mass, size, luminosity and temperature to the sun in an orbit that takes around a year to complete.Orbital WoesNews posted on Science Daily says that Earth dodged an orbital bullet, compared to a system of four planets orbiting Kepler-223. All much larger than Earth, they got locked into fragile resonances that they’ve maintained longer than expected. This calls into question how Earth survived the gravitational billiard games other planetary systems seem to have endured. Lead author of a new paper confesses, “Exactly how and where planets form is an outstanding question in planetary science.”Oxygen WoesOxygen is life-giving, except when astrobiologists don’t want it. Oxygen destroys the molecules they want for life to emerge in the fabled prebiotic soup. A paper in Nature now claims that oxygen appeared on the early Earth much sooner than thought — 2.7 billion years ago, instead of 2.4 billion, a difference of 300 million years. And if the meteorite data on which this conclusion is based isn’t refuted, it also means the Earth had almost as much oxygen then as it does now. “Shooting stars show Earth had oxygen eons before we thought,” Jeff Hecht says on New Scientist.“We were very surprised to find micrometeorites at all, let alone those with iron oxides,” says Matthew Genge of Imperial College London. “It was incredible, these tiny spherules had trapped ancient atmosphere, storing it away like little treasure chests.”The biggest surprise was the presence of oxygen, says lead author Andrew Tomkins of Monash University in Australia. “As geologists, we are taught the Earth had no oxygen in its atmosphere before 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago.”One NASA scientist remarked, “It is remarkable that objects as small as the micrometeorites survived intact for 2.7 billion years.” Given this surprise, can geologists claim any time when the Earth lacked oxygen?If oxygen goes back to the beginning of Earth, they can kiss their little OOLS good-bye (origin-of-life scenarios).What can we safely conclude from these three reports? Earth looks designed for life, just like Isaiah said. (Visited 50 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The skull and skeletal fragments of the juvenile male fossil Australopithecus sediba, a newly discovered species of hominid. Human evolutionary tree showing the position of Australopithecus sediba, by Peter Schmid of the University of Zurich. (Click on image to enlarge.) MEDIA CONTACTS • Professor Lee Berger +27 11 717 6604 +27 71 864 0860 Lee.Berger@wits.ac.za / email@example.com • Professor Paul Dirks +61 74781 5047 + 61 429 566120 firstname.lastname@example.org • Institute for Human Evolution + 27 11 717 6695 email@example.com RELATED ARTICLES • African human genomes decoded• SA unearths 18 new species• World Heritage in South AfricaLucille DavieAs I stare at the skeleton of this human ancestor in its glass case I find the idea difficult to grasp: this boy walked this very area of the earth almost 2-million years ago.An entirely new species of hominid, or ape-man, has been described following the discovery of two 1.9-million-year-old fossilised skeletons in the Cradle of Humankind near Johannesburg.• View and download high-resolution images of the discoveryNamed Australopithecus sediba, the creatures had long ape-like arms and short powerful hands, so they probably retained their ability to climb trees. But they also had a more advanced pelvis and long legs that would have allowed them to stride and possibly run like modern humans.The skeletons, of a boy between 11 and 13 years and an adult female in her late 20s or early 30s, were unearthed by a team from the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), led by professors Lee Berger and Paul Dirks. Berger is a palaeoanthropologist at Wits and Dirks a geologist based at the James Cooke University in Australia.Fragments of the boy’s skeleton were on display at the announcement of the find on 8 April at Maropeng, the visitors’ centre of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site.Berger believes Australopithecus sediba is likely to be the transitional species between the southern African ape-man Australopithecus africanus, such as the Taung Child and Mrs Ples, and either Homo habilis or even a direct ancestor of Homo erectus – Turkana Boy, Java man and Peking man.The australopithecines are believed to be the ancestors of species in the genus Homo, which includes modern humans. The find, which Berger describes as the Rosetta Stone of human evolution, promises to turn the palaeontological world upside down. Homo habilis will have to be re-examined, and textbooks rewritten.“It is estimated that they were both about 1.27 metres, although the child would certainly have grown taller,” Berger said. “The female probably weighed about 33 kilograms and the child about 27 kilograms at the time of his death.“The brain size of the juvenile was between 420 and 450 cubic centimetres, which is small when compared to the human brain of about 1 200 to 1 600 cubic centimetres, but the shape of the brain seems to be more advanced than that of [other] australopithecines.”Australopithecus sediba‘s environment would have been a mix of open savannah grassland and forest.The fossils were deposited in a single debris flow and were found together in the remains of a deeply eroded cave system. It’s likely that they died at about the same time, and could have known each other, or even been related.Berger, whose 11-year-old son Matthew found the first fossil, expects many more fossils to be excavated from the site. With 130 bone fragments recovered, they are the most complete hominid skeletons ever found. And Berger is confident that the site will yield the missing pieces.Sediba is Sesotho for spring, fountain or wellspring, and the species so named because it is hoped that “a great source of information will spring from the fossils”.The find is the cover story of the prestigious journal Science, with two articles, written by Berger and Dirks, published on 9 April 2010.“I am having the adventure of my life,” Berger said.International team of scientistsBerger and Dirks have assembled a team of around a dozen international scientists to work on the find. In total, some 60 scientists from around the world have been involved in unravelling the discovery.The first step was a geological study, to help determine the age of the fossils. Other dating techniques included assessing the uranium lead components in the rock, establishing its magnetic polarity, which changes over time, and studying the site’s rate of erosion.Dirks studied the context of how the fossils landed in the cave, taking a series of sedimentary deposits and making a detailed description of different rocks up to two metres deep.“It is a hole in the ground – it must have been a cave,” he said.Investigation revealed that the fossils were deposited by a muddy flow of water, which probably carried the two bodies at the same time, because they were found together. Other fossils found were a 1.5-million-year-old sabre tooth cat, and 2.36-million-year-old wild cats and dogs.The erosion rate of the opening was measured, and it was established that it had been between 30 and 50 metres deep.“The animals probably smelled the water in the cave, and fell into the cave trying to get to it,” said Dirks. They would have died almost immediately, and their bodies carried down into a deeper chamber of the cave, joining others that suffered the same fate. This is supported by the fact that the fossils have no scavenger or insect damage.Excavations have not yet begun, says Dirks, only the surface has been cleared.Using Google Earth to find fossilsThis adventure began some 18 months ago, in early 2008, Berger said. He first charted the area on Google Earth, finding 600 new sites in the Cradle of Humankind, and then walked it with his dog, Tau.On the day the first fossil was found he and Matthew, then nine, were walking with post-doctoral student Job Kibbii and Tau. They walked to the edge of a pit, and Berger encouraged the others to look around.“Within one and a half minutes Matthew called out that he had found something,” said Berger. At first he thought it was a fragment of antelope, a common find. Then he recognised the fossil as the collar bone of a hominid.He soon found other fragments – a scapula or shoulder blade, normally never found because it is so fragile and erodes quickly – and arm bones, while two hominid teeth “fell into my hands”.Matthew said he has been on sites with his father more than 20 times, and intends to become a palaeoanthropologist too.Treasure chestProfessor emeritus Philip Tobias, present at the announcement, described the area as a “treasure chest”“I am thrilled that our expectations of the cradle area have so soon been realised,” he said. “This evidence a kilometre or two from Sterkfontein has yielded several hominid individuals and that is something to get very excited about.”Describing the find as “ä great joy”, Tobias said that the fact that two skeletons had been found means that it allows scientists to study a family or community which is much more valuable than studying individual fossils.Children in South Africa have been invited to come up with a name for the skeleton of the boy.The fossil will be on display at Maropeng until 18 April, and will then move to Cape Town for the launch of Palaeo-Sciences Week from 19 April. It will again be on display at the Origins Centre at Wits during May.
SharePrint RelatedYour Path to Platinum EarthCachingFebruary 11, 2015In “Community”Inside Geocaching HQ Podcast Transcript (Episode 13): EarthCachesMay 10, 2018In “Community”Happy Birthday EarthCaching – EarthCaches Turn 8 TodayJanuary 10, 2012In “Cache In Trash Out” EarthCache I, AustraliaEditor’s Note: Gary, Geoaware, placed the very first EarthCache on this date in 2004. Today there are more than 17,000 EarthCaches around the globe from the peaks of mountains to the desert floor. This is Gary’s story of that first EarthCache.Gary aka “Geoaware”By Gary, Geoaware: Ten years ago I was a lucky guy in the right place at the right time. The Geological Society of America (GSA) had just employed me to work on education and outreach programs, a GSA member mentioned the new game of geocaching to my boss, and I was on holiday here with my kids looking at the rocks in Australia.So that day we wandered around a rock platform that I had been on a thousand times before but now with a new purpose. How could I bring others here geocaching so they left learning something new about our amazing planet? Fossils, evidence for glaciers, weathering – so much in such a short walk. This was the perfect place. And so EarthCache I GCHFT2 was born—and so was the concept of an EarthCache: a place where the Earth was the treasure. A place where you would learn about the geology of the planet while you geocached. If you have not experienced an EarthCache, its time you tried. It’s a different experience – but who would ever not enjoy learning when it’s fun!Since then we have gone through many changes, twists and turns – always in partnership with Geocaching.com and always edging forward so that we can add to the game of geocaching as well as teaching people about our Earth. We even now have a Mega-Event held each year just for EarthCachers (GC4JD1B).What an amazing ten years the EarthCache program has had. Since the first EarthCache was placed, four million people have visited over 17,000 EarthCaches in 165 countries around the globe. It is a truly outstanding impact to get people outside, have fun and learn about our dynamic planet all at the same time. And all of that amazing credit goes to the whole community that visits, develops and loves EarthCaches and the wonderful group of community volunteers – the ‘geoawares’ that work with EarthCache developers to get the very best EarthCache submissions published.EarthCache: Gullfoss (Golden Falls)Finally, I can’t ignore the amazing support of The Geological Society of America, who sees this program as the jewel in its outreach to the wider community.I hope you will all celebrate the amazing 10th year of EarthCaches by finding and logging an EarthCache or even joining the next 3rd International EarthCache Mega-Event! EarthCache in Dorest, UK Share with your Friends:More
Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#Internet of Things#web bradley berman A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market A not-so-futuristic world in which drivers, cars and roads operate in a highly connected network of instantaneous data got one step closer to reality today.The scale of the project, managed by the University of Michigan’s Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), is unprecedented. For the next 12 months, nearly 3,000 cars — operated by drivers specifically recruited because they frequently drive in the same quadrant of Ann Arbor, Mich. — will be integrated via Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), a technology similar to the wi-fi network you use at home or the local cafe.But instead of your laptop or smart phone connecting to the web—so you can check your latest Facebook messages—these thousands of cars will beam safety messages and warnings to their drivers, each other and to a dedicated cloud of computers. Each vehicle will transmit about 10 messages per second.“The participants are parents driving kids to school, picking them up after school, or driving them to ballet or football,” said Peter Sweatman, UMTRI’s director. “We have a platform, with five or six applications on that platform intended to avoid certain major classes of crash, whether at an intersection, a lane departure, a rear-end or whatever it might be.” When dangerous conditions occur, drivers will be warned via some combination of visual signals, sounds and vibrations.Big Data on WheelsAll of the data will be recorded, so researchers can determine the accuracy of the warnings, and which types of alerts are most effective at helping drivers avert danger. At this point, there is no automated vehicle control, but given the number of sensors on today’s vehicles, that’s a logical subsequent step, according to Sweatman.Most of the vehicles are owned by the participants and fitted with after-market safety equipment and one-way communications devices. In addition, 64 cars supplied by participating automobile companies will be loaned for a year to drivers. These vehicles have been outfitted with embedded communications equipment—connected to the car’s onboard computer network—and fitted with the carmaker’s customized warning interfaces and multiple video cameras.This project is the culmination of about 10 years of work by the U.S. Department of Transportation, as well as a long list of partner organizations, automotive companies, and educational institutions such as UMTRI.This latest phase, which launched today, represents the deployment of technology into the real world with everyday drivers. As part of this phase, the connected vehicles can also “talk” to dozens of traffic signals, and sections of roads deemed to be particularly dangerous.Incredible PlatformThe combination of data and video gathered in Ann Arbor will make researchers practically omniscient. “We not only know what messages and warning are being sent to drivers. We know exactly what the driver is doing in great detail,” said Sweatman.“We know how many occupants there are, what they are doing, the driver’s facial expression, and where they are looking. We can see if they’re texting, what they are doing with their hands, and with video outside the vehicle, we know what the traffic scene is.”The model deployment is a $25-million pilot with approximately 80 percent of the funding provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation. When you consider that there are 34,000 fatalities, costing about $240 billion annually, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the cost seems more than justified.Eight major automotive manufacturers — Ford, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai-Kia, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Toyota and Volkswagen — are providing support for the research through partnering agreements.“In the longer term, I’m really interested to see what else gets built on this incredible platform,” said Sweatman. “It’s a sandbox, a starting point for entrepreneurs for all kinds of applications, not only to avoid crashes, but to make the traffic flow better and to save energy.” He said that all architectures, standards and specifications are publicly available. Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…
The Goa police on Tuesday arrested a motor-cycle taxi owner in connection with a complaint of molestation filed by a U.S. tourist.The woman had said on Facebook that she was molested during a bike ride in Goa on the eve of Republic Day. Inspector C.L. Patil, in charge of the Anjuna police station, told presspersons on Tuesday that Isidore Ferandes, 44, a resident of Anjuna in north coastal Goa, was arrested and handed over to the neighbouring Pernem police station as the crime area comes under its jurisdiction. Chandan Chaudhary, Superintendent of Police, North Goa, told The Hindu that the accused had confessed to the crime.The U.S. tourist had hired the motorcycle taxi for a ride from Arpora to Morjim beach village, both in North coastal Goa.